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- (rebirth) A French term for a cultural movement that is mainly associated with Italy from around the late 1300s to the early 1600s. In addition to new directions in art, literature and science, following the discovery of the writings of Vitruvius, it heralded the reintroduction of classical architecture, particularly that of Ancient Rome. Vitruvius hadn't illustrated his work, Serlio, Palladio et al did, adding their own interpretations, and eventually their teachings spread throughout Europe. It also bought a theoretical interest to city planning, including the use of an aesthetic based on perspective and axial symmetry. The "Ideal City" appeared, but mainly town plans were driven by the pragmatic approach of the military engineer. It was not until the early 1600s that the architects and artists re-established their rights to plan cities.